The following questions are based on enquires I have received from prospective and new clients over the years. Continue reading
While watching a TV programme recently I heard of a term that I had never heard of before: synaesthesia. Oxford Dictionary of English defines this as “the production of a sense impression relating to one sense or part of the body by stimulation of another sense or part of the body”. For instance, sights or sounds might evoke sensations of taste or colour. Continue reading
A pen name, also known as a nom de plume, is an assumed name used by a writer instead of their own real name. It can also be a variant form of their real name and might be known only to the publisher or might be widely known. For example, Ruth Rendell, author of dozens of crime fiction titles (the Inspector Wexford series, for instance) also wrote under the name of Barbara Vine to explore the psychological background of criminals and their victims. Continue reading
Roman (that is upright type) is the standard text typeface, but for various reasons italic type (that is slanted to the right) is adopted. This is often to indicate some form of departure from normal text for the reader to interpret the word or words in a certain way. Some of the main uses of italic type, or italics, in British English follow. Continue reading
A nickname is “a familiar or humorous name given to a person or thing instead of or as well as the real name” (Oxford English Dictionary). So what do the nicknames of past kings and queens of Britain say about them? Continue reading
In the first part of this blog I discussed the widespread use of sexist language and reasons and methods used to avoid it. Here I will look at biased language and stereotypes.
What is biased language?
Biased language refers to words and phrases that can be considered hurtful, offensive, and prejudiced. Biased language includes expressions or terms that demean or exclude people because of age, ethnicity, marital status, race, religion, politics, sex, sexual orientation, social class, or certain physical or mental traits.
Examples of biased treatment
Age: Avoid derogatory or condescending terms associated with age. For example, “a little old lady” can be rephrased as “a woman in her eighties”. Also try to avoid phrases such as “old dears” or, even worse, “he was an old codger”.
Nationality / country: Avoid stereotyping people according to where they come from. Not all British people are stiff and formal, giving the impression of reserve or unfriendliness. Not all Americans carry cameras, nor French people wear berets, if indeed many do.
Be careful in the way you refer to countries and continents.
- The Americas include both North and South America, so you need to make the distinction.
- England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland make up Great Britain, or the United Kingdom.
- Shifts in world politics and boundaries have resulted in many countries being renamed: Burma has become Myanmar; Ceylon has become Sri Lanka; Rhodesia is now Zimbabwe. Ensure you use an up-to-date world atlas.
Health and disabilities: Avoid terms like wheelchair-bound and victim (of a disease), so as not to emphasize difference and disability. Refer instead to someone who uses a wheelchair and do not draw unnecessary attention to a disability or an illness.
Race: A person’s race should only be mentioned when it is relevant and use the names people prefer for their racial or ethnic affiliation. For example: black and African American are preferred terms as are Native American (not American Indian) and Asian (not Oriental).
Sexual orientation: As with race, refer to a person’s sexual orientation only if the information is necessary to your writing. It may be pertinent to say that someone was defended by a homosexual in a legal case of discrimination against homosexuals, but it would not be relevant mentioning this in a criminal or commercial legal case. You will not necessarily know your reader’s sexual orientation and it is therefore unwise to make assumptions and risk causing offence.
The word normal: A word to be especially careful about using when referring to your own or someone else’s health, ability, or sexual orientation. After all, what is normal? Some readers could justifiably find that offensive.
Similar care should be taken with words that have religious connotations such as devout or fundamentalist, or political connotations such as radical, moderate, or right wing.
It is not only terms used in writing that can cause offence. Drawing cartoons that belittle someone because of their beliefs, gender expression, or political affiliation can also be hurtful. Recall the problems caused by a Danish newspaper some years ago and a French magazine more recently that published cartoons that were interpreted by Muslims as disrespectful to their faith.
The motto: Treat others as you would want them to treat you – with respect. Careless or gratuitously offensive writing is not clever.
In the first part of this blog I will discuss the occurrence and the effect of using sexist language and in part 2 I will go on to the wider issues of using stereotypes and biased language. Continue reading